The ergogenic effects of caffeine have been examined many times in recent years. New research in a full literature review confirms further that caffeine intake does enhance human performance. Research in The Journal of Strength and Conditioning, examined 29 studies analyzing caffeine and found 11 studies revealing significant improvements in team sports exercise and power-based sports with caffeine ingestion.
 

Six of the reviewed studies indicated significant benefits of caffeine ingestion for resistance exercises and weight training. There were however, a few studies that indicated a decrease in athletic performance with caffeine ingestion during repeated exercise sessions. The effect of caffeine consumption on athletes can depend on the individual's body composition. Doses of caffeine in the ranges of 3 -6 mg/ per kg of bodyweight appear to be optimal for most athletes. Research indicates that the best timing of caffeine intake is about 60 minutes before the workout. 
 

It is important to note that there are  negative consequences of caffeine supplementation for performance that can include;  a diuretic effect, dehydration, and gastrointestinal upset. Caffeine sensitivities can also occur in some people, including migraines, anxiety, restlessness, and nervousness.

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